With the aim of assessing the environmental impact of products or services, different methods are used in the construction industry, with different indicators. The basis is a defined perspective framework within which the inputs and outputs are quantified. Depending on the method, one or more indicators are displayed. The sustainability certification systems for buildings (especially BNB, DGNB) and environmental product declarations (EPDs) promoted the dissemination of ecological characteristics in construction. However, in many cases, it remains the case when the resources and emissions associated with the product are identified. An examination in the early planning phase is also complex and the actual potential of these methods - reduction of environmental influence by the construction industry - remains under its possibilities.
The complexity of urban areas results from their spatial heterogeneity, their intertwined material and energy fluxes, and the integration of social and natural processes. All of these features can be altered by intentional planning and design. The complex, integrated suite of urban structures and processes together affect the adaptive resilience of urban systems, but also presupposes that planners can intervene in positive ways”.
(Pickett, S.T.A. et. Al. (Eds.), 2013)1